Accessibility

Transcript for October 27, 2017

[ Background Talking ]

>> [Inaudible] thank you very much for being here. And so my name is Sequoia Kamat [phonetic]. And I'm going to be presenting my study right here. But before I do that, I want to give a [inaudible] background of myself, professional background. So I did my associate's degree in psychology at Southwestern College, my bachelors degree here at SDSU in psychology, and first masters degree right here in the [inaudible] program at SDSU, and second masters degree in psychology, and my doctoral degree in psychology with an emphasis in psychodynamics. All right, so let's see, okay, [inaudible]? Yes. Actually, we can go back to the first slide. Okay. So this is the title of my study. And as [inaudible] the English and Spanish adaptation of [inaudible] with the US Bilingual Latinos Lost in Translation. So I'm going to stay right there, so hold on. So I'm going to make it very simple. My purpose today is to make this presentation very simple, clear, straight to the point, okay, and very interesting for all of you. So here we go; this is what I did. With a group of Latinos, bilingual Latinos, I administer those three tests. We have the first one right here. Actually, I don't have the one in English, but this is the one -- the MMPI-2-RF [phonetic] in English, okay, and then the MMPI-2-RF in Spanish, translated here in the United States, and the MMPI-2-RF in Spanish, but translated in Spain. Okay; so three tests, okay? So some people took two tests, some people took three tests, okay? And I compare their results, okay? It should be very clear, but, you know, I don't want to make it too complicated, okay, so just think about three tests.

Group of bilingual Latinos, they took the test. All right. We can go to the next one. All right, as you see, right here I'm talking about language, okay, English, Spanish and Spanish, okay? So language is very important for my -- here in my study. It's something that is going to keep coming back, and back, and back in my study, okay, my presentation. So language is very important, okay, and we're talking -- when we're working with clients, bilingual clients, okay? So keep this in mind. When we talk about bilingual clients, I want to be more specific bilingual Latinos, okay, English and Spanish. According to the -- depending on the language that this person is speaking, this is how they're going to perceive the world, okay? And not just that, but this is how they're going to express symptoms, comments, questions, concerns during a session, or during psychological testing, okay? All right; MMPI. All right; let's go to the next point; right here. So there's a lot of studies down with the MMPI, MMPI 2 and MMPI A, okay, all around the world, a lot of studies. However, right here -- however, when we talk about the MMPI 2, and the MMPI, MMPI A, we compare the studies done with another psychological testing. For example, first I go to assess, evaluate psychopathology. For example, we compare with the PAI, MCMI, TAT, and the Rorschach, which is way more studies done in MMPI and MMPI 2. [Inaudible], okay? All right. We can go to the next one.

All right. So there are studies done with MMPI and MMPI 2 [inaudible] but the research staff is very, very small. Okay; I'm going to present to all of you the field studies done with a group of Latinos, okay, bilingual Latinos. So [makes sounds] -- okay and those studies are only going being presented to you. They talk about -- they do different -- like they do -- they compare different languages when it comes to the psychological test. And they compare one language with the other, okay, so that's been the main purposes of those studies, okay? The same things I did with my study, okay? So as you see, it's very, very important -- right here it says right here, "It is critical for validity and reliability, especially in treatment," okay? So what we're going to do while we do this type of studies, we want to assess the validity and reliability of those studies. Okay; and we want to know, "Hey, are we supposed to be using those tests or not? Is it valid or not?" Okay, so that's the main purpose; all right. So not just that, but guess what, sometimes you are going to have clients that -- or patients -- they're going to want to be tested in both languages, English and Spanish, okay? We're going to go back to language. Remember, depending on which language the person is speaking at that time in moment, how they're going to express.

So sometimes -- this happened not too long ago to me. And I administer psychological testing in Spanish. And then after, you know, when this person was done, he said, "Can I take another --" it was first in Spanish and then he said, "Can I take another in English?" All right. And guess what, now you're going to want to make sure that you get the same results in both, right, because reliability and validity, they're high; let's hope. All right. We can go to the next one. Let me see, hold on, any questions right now? How are we doing? Getting enough? Okay. [Laughs] I get it. Okay, rational [inaudible] personality instruments; okay so why do we care? Why do we want to know about the validity of a test? I'm going to be very specific talking about testing bilingual Latinos. Here we go. As of 2014, total population of the United States, 55 million persons are Latinos. We're talking about 17%, right? As of -- no -- now it's expected in 2050, we're going to have 120 million Latinos, meaning it's going to be 33%, okay? From 17% it's going to increase to 33%. Okay. Let's go back to language.

back to top

While 25% of the Latino population primarily speaks English and -- yes they prefer English, okay; so 25% they prefer English, 36% consider themselves bilingual, okay; and 38 mainly Spanish, okay? So if we add the 36 to the 38, Spanish is still very important for bilingual Latinos, okay, very important. All right; again, language, very interesting. Here in the United States, especially right here in California and San Diego, we Latinos speak interesting, two different Spanish, okay? We speak the Spanish from Mexico, and Spanish from -- a combination of English and Spanish, okay, from the United States. So it's very, very interesting to keep this in mind, okay? It's very different, and it's very interesting when it comes to the metaphor, idioms of distress, you name it, okay? There's a lot of combination of everything, okay; just to make it more complicated for all of you to understand this, okay? Anyway, okay, let's get to the next one. All right, so -- yes.

>> Excuse me, the English and Spanish that you're talking about, is that something that has been referred to as "Spanglish"?

>> Different, different, because Spanglish is we mix English with Spanish, English with Spanish. And this Spanish that I'm talking about is all Spanish, but it's with like very interesting words, idioms of distress, and I mean, I don't know, it's just so interesting that we created this Spanish here. Very, very interesting because it's like very close to the border so it has a lot to do with the Spanish from Mexico, Mexico. So yes; did I answer the question? All right. Past studies on bilingual Latinos; all right, so as I mentioned earlier, yes, there are studies done with the MMPI, MMPI 2 with bilingual Latinos, not too many. I'm going to present those to you and I'm going to start with MMPI, okay; studies done with MMPI, bilingual Latinos. All right; so when you are doing these types of studies, you want to make sure that you're doing two things, okay, first counterbalance design [phonetic], okay, meaning that you want to control for effects, meaning that you give this test first to the person in English, then in Spanish. And then the next person is going to take first in Spanish, and then in English, and so on, and so on, and so on, okay? If you do it in the same order, hey, you're not controlling for language effects, okay? You've got to make sure that when it -- just keep that in mind when it comes to the, you know, study I'm going to present to you. Another thing is that it's very important to -- well, you know, back translation, okay? So what is that translation meaning that this is the original, right, in English, I translate it into Spanish. This is the original. You want to make sure that you can bring it back to the original, okay, that's back translation, okay?

All right; so we have first study, 1969, [inaudible]. So what he did, he did a study with a group of college students, okay? They were not bilingual Latinos; they were white college students. They were learning Spanish, okay? So what he did, he administered the MMPI. However, he did not use counterbalance design. Everybody took the test in the same order, everybody, every single person, okay? All right; and then, dah, dah, dah, he used the two versions of the MMPI. And according to the results, they responded similar in both tests, okay? So this is very interesting. Keep this in mind. We've got a problem right there, okay? No counterbalance design. They were not bilingual Latinos, okay? All right; and let's get to the next one, the next study was the MMPI bilingual Latinos, Fuller and Malone [phonetic] in 1944. So what he did, he administered the MMPI to a group of high school students, bilingual Latinos, okay? So this is the first study actually then to the bilingual Latinos. And now, however, he used MMPI, not the MMPI A, because it was not available back in this year, okay? Something to consider right there. The second problem right here is that he used the [inaudible] version. There were a lot of problems with that version, okay, with the MMPI. Why, bad translation. That version was not back translated. And end results, what he saw is that guess what, the group of Latino students, high school students in this test, the English test, they performed fine. Now, when they took the Spanish version, they presented like with pathology [phonetic], like if they were experiencing pathology, okay, with psychosis.

So wow, what's up? All right, here we go, let's get to the next one. Okay, that was it. When it comes to the MMPI, those were the two studies done with a group of bilingual Latinos. Now, we're going to move to the MMPI 2. What are the studies done, MMPI 2 bilingual Latinos? The first one is [inaudible], 1998. He did a study with college students, okay, and of bilingual. He administered the MMPI 2. He used two studies, the Spanish and English, the Spanish version that he used, it was back translated, great, perfect. He used counterbalance design, excellent. And so what he says is that they responded almost identically in both tests, okay; so good study. The next one is Velasquez in 2000. He did, again, a study in college students, bilingual Latino college students, administered the MMPI 2. However, he did it like two sub-studies, administered the MMPI 2 in English from Spanish from the United States, English; English and a version from Mexico. And they all performed identically in all of the tests. All right; so we're going to get to the next one. We have Rossi [phonetic] in 2003. She did actually has a dissertation at CSBP [phonetic], and what she did is that she administered the MMPI 2, and in English in Spanish. And also not just that, but also the MMPI 3 in English and Spanish, and she saw identical results on both. Last one right here, we have Anderson in 2003. Study with college -- he did the study with college students, bilingual Latinos, administered the MMPI 2 in English and in Spanish and results were almost identical. Okay; [inaudible] questions? [Laughs] Yes; I like questions.

>> [Inaudible]. [Laughter] When these tests are given to Latinos --

>> Yes.

>> And which is all inclusive [inaudible] like everybody's south of the United States, you know.

>> Okay.

back to top

>> With all the varieties of different Latinos that exist are in various, you know, based on the Spanish language, were these tests applicable to -- I mean, did they -- were they -- do they go cross-culturally among the many different Latinos [inaudible]?

>> Oh, I like that question because guess what, that's the main purpose of my study.

>> Oh, really.

>> [Laughs] I'm going to tell you if yes or not in a minute. Yes, hold on. Yes, okay, great, I love it. I hope that I can answer your question, okay, like in a few minutes, more than a few minutes, probably like 20 minutes or something. Okay, anyway so here we go, this is just a table, as you can all see. The last three studies that I, you know, presented to you was the MMPI 2, from Velasquez, Rossi, and Anderson. I'm presenting just the test reliability coefficient. And very close together, we see they're in the '50s, '60s, '70s, very, very close together. So that's just for all of you to kind of like have a better picture of those three studies. We can go to the next one. All right, interesting enough my study -- research study started with an idea, and then had to change. And, you know, I'm going to explain what. But it was kind of like an interesting change. So okay in 2008, [inaudible] they published an MMPI-2-RF, okay? This is it right here. No; this screen here, this test. And so okay, with the idea that you know what, the MMPI-2-RF is going to replace the MMPI 2. Here we go; we're going to make some changes. One of the differences is that it went from -- the MMPI 2 went from 567 items to 338 items; the MMPI-2-RF, okay? And with the idea also that, "Ooh, psychometrics are going to be way better; validity, reliability, yes." Okay; so this is the test. We need to use this test.

And it should be the same; it should be very, very, very much the same as the MMPI, MMPI 2, okay; that was the main idea, a pairing of MMPI. However, there's still a lot of questioning if yes, is the same as the MMPI and MMPI 2 or not, okay? A lot of people are saying yes, it's the same, 50%; 50%, no it's not the same. All right. All right; so when I started with this idea of doing this study, I said, "Okay, I want to study -- I want to see this test in English. We're going to administer to bilingual Latinos, see how they perform, and what do we have in Spanish?" And I find out that we have this. And what is this, it's the MMPI-2-RF Spanish-translated and Spain. And I said, "Oh, my God, we're going to be using that here in the United States, in California, San Diego. Ah, okay, let me take a look." So I was going through the items and just reading them and I said, "Interesting." [Laughs] I was just getting kind of like confused with some items, right, some words and the way they put up the questions. Right; and I said, "I want to do this. I want to see, okay, because this is what we're supposed to be using, okay, we want to use the MMPI, both English and Spanish. This is what you have available." I started my study two, three years later. I think it was two months before I was going to start to collect data I realized -- well I find out, one of my colleagues told me, "Guess what, Sequoia, the MMPI-2-RF and Spanish from the US, it's out." I'm like, "No." Okay.

So what I had to do was -- well anyway So, you know, I thought about it and I said, "Okay, I'm not going to modify this. I'm still going to keep those two tests, okay? I'm going to do the study on those two tests, but I'm going to add the third one." And that's what I did, okay? So not everybody, not every single participant took three tests. Some -- every third participant took three tests, okay? So we have first test, English and Spanish, And then second, Spanish, English. The third person was going to take three tests. That's it. So I wanted to prove the three tests. And that's how I decided to do the study. Okay. [Makes Sounds] I think I covered all this. All right. So why, why do we care? What do I want to study those tests, right, why do I want to know about the MMPI, or the MMPI 2, or the MMPI A, MMPI-2-RF in this case because that's my study on the MMPI-2-RF; why do I even care? Well, yes, it's very important because guess what, we use this in psychology. We use this to assess psychopathology, and not just that, but also, you know, personality traits. So we -- it's very, very common. You see it a lot compared to other tests. So not just that, also assessment in anticipation of psychopathology, I said that, diagnostic and treatment planning. Well, guess what, we're going to diagnose. Based on the tests, the results that we have right here we're going to provide diagnoses probably. I don't know [inaudible]. And treatment planning; based on the results that we see right here we're going to put together a treatment plan, okay?

Evaluation of disability and fitness for therapy, like what kind of therapy are we going to be using, right? Is there a personality disorder, mood disorder, who knows, right? Based on this result, you're going to put together, you know, your plan, what type of therapy are going to be using with your client; and determination of [inaudible]. All right; okay, you can go to the next one. How are we doing; questions, no? Okay. What do we have next? Okay; what's the purpose of this study? I think I already mentioned this quite a, you know, few times, but here we go again. I'm preparing a group of bilingual Latinos, okay, on the English and Spanish, English and Spanish, adaption of the MMPI-2-RF, on all the skills, okay? I'm going to give you a heads up about the scale. Second purpose right here, aim, is to compare again, the same group of bilingual Latinos, with like Spanish and the Castilian Spanish. Right here, let's just -- now those two, compare, give it to the person, see if they perform identically. Third, compare like a group of bilingual Latinos, the English and Castilian Spanish, those two right here now, okay, we're going to compare those, hope they perform identically. All right; and the last aim was to compare Latino women to Latino men, okay? How are they going to perform, okay, in English, right here in English, and the Spanish adaptation, those two. Do you want to know why not also with the Castilian from Spain? Do you have any questions -- any ideas why not; any guess? [Laughs] Okay. [Inaudible Comment]

Okay, I like that. So if I'm here in San Diego and I have two choices -- "Sequoia, you have two choices in Spanish, US translation in the United States, or the one translated in Spain," I'm going to pick the US translation, not the Spain, okay? This was my only choice three years ago, two years ago, six months -- no three months before I collected data, okay? All right, but now this. So we want to know about this, okay, this combination right here. All right. Yes; okay if we can go to the next one. All right, so my hypothesis; okay this is what I'm hoping to see, okay, that's my hypothesis. Here we go. The first one is that statistically significant correlation of concessions; okay so what I'm saying there is that I'm going to find -- we're going to see the first one as between English, English and Spanish adaptations. I'm going to find significance between those two, meaning the same results. This is my first hypothesis; yes they're going to be the same, they're going to perform the same. This person -- these people are going to perform the same, okay; meaning no differences between scales, okay? When I run the data, I'm going to see no difference. The second hypothesis is the same thing, I'm going to expect no differences these other two combinations, okay? And then third one Spanish to Spanish, those two, okay, no differences when it comes to all the scales, okay? And we can go to the next one.

back to top

>> I have a question.

>> Yes; yes.

>> Say from your [inaudible], you talked about that one of the reasons for the study was that even though the US Spanish translation without permissions for school use in the Castilian Spanish version [phonetic]?

>> Yes.

>> You were concerned about like if that was appropriate?

>> Absolutely, yes; this is the one that was available, this is it from Spain. Some concern, right, I want to know, "Wow, okay, were you using this translation from Spain here in the United States. Are we going to be able to understand this or not?" So that was my main purpose of this study, okay? And then this came along. And I said, "Okay, let's see if they're all the same?" Okay, all right. Now, all right my last hypothesis is Latino women and men would differ on the English and [inaudible] Spanish. Okay; so English and Spanish, so I only did -- remember this, the last one when it comes to gender, Latino men and women, I'm saying they're going to perform differently. Men and women are going to perform differently. Okay, that's my hypothesis, okay? Why; according to past studies with the MMPI and MMPI 2, there's no research done with the MMPI-2-RF, so I cannot say according to the MMPI-2-RF, okay? So according to the studies done with MMPI and MMPI 2, Latinos perform differently and [inaudible] HPC, and the test SUV, ICP, NEC, AGGR, and GIS [phonetic]. This is what you see, a pattern; they perform differently. So I'm saying, "Okay; I'm going to see the same -- I'm going to see the same results, okay, differences when it comes to gender." Okay, I think we can move on. Who participated in my study?

Here we go. Many of you -- no, none of you, [laughs] none of you. It was like -- okay here we go, we had 63 people participating in my study, that was [inaudible] sample, okay? And we have females, 61.9% of my participants were female, okay, and me, 39; 23 were male, 36.5 of them. And with one person just didn't identify their gender, okay, one person. And all right so when it comes to H, the mean H of my participants -- please keep this in mind because this is all connected to my results at the end, okay, my discussion. The mean, most of them, they were kind of, you know, 35, 35, 36, 34 years of age, okay, most of my sample. And they were all, you know, with the range of from 18 years of age to 66. Okay, the majority were -- 84.2 were either single or married, 84% of them they were either single and married, single and married, okay? So with single 42, almost 43, and married, 41.3, okay? Most of my sample were born in the United States; how much, how many, 58.7% of them were born in the United States, okay? Followed by born in Mexico, 27%, and other Spanish-speaking countries like Peru and Spain, we had 14.3% of them. Yes.

>> I'm not sure I understand [inaudible].

>> Yes.

>> The majority were either single or married [inaudible].

>> Okay; I like the question because guess what, I have my demographics right here. [Laughs] And I can tell you what are -- so let's see, so they have the question. They could be --

>> [Inaudible] living with somebody?

>> No; they can be -- for example, let's see, what are their status, hmm, single, married, divorced, other.

>> Okay, divorced was not included.

>> Yes. Okay; or living with other -- with someone, right? So yes, [inaudible]. The majority of them were either single or married, single and married. [Inaudible] like what is it, like 15%, and the other, okay? Answer the question? Yes, okay. All right, participants, all right [inaudible]. [Makes Sounds] Okay, ooh very important to keep in mind, okay? So you're having -- like right now you're forming an idea of my sample, okay, who participated in this test, okay; 74.6, almost 75% possess at least an associates degree, okay? And higher education, bachelors, masters, doctoral degree, so most of my samples are very well-educated, associates, bachelors, masters degree, okay? Seventy point three percent were in the middle to high when it comes to socioeconomic status, okay, middle to high, 72.3. Majority of the sample identifies themselves as having Mexican roots, okay? So 50.9% of my sample identified as Mexican-Americans. Okay, 50.9 identified as having Mexican roots; 28.6 identify as Mexican American; 9.5 as Mexicano or Mexicana. They have that option, okay? And followed by Latino, 30.2% identify as Latino, and Hispanic, 11.1%. All right. Do you have a -- getting like a pretty good picture of who participated in my study, and, you know, kind of? Okay.

>> [Inaudible] how educated sample.

>> Yes; okay.

>> Which is probably an issue I've mentioned here talking about how it's representative of a --

>> Yes, yes. So we -- so my study is going to reflect that sample, okay, that population. We cannot generalize to the entire population, Latino population, okay, only to that sample.

[ Inaudible Comment ]

Yes; most of them were in medium to high socioeconomic status. Yes, yes, yes. All right; so how did I put together this study? Okay, what did I do? I used the snowball technique. What is that? I asked -- I identified potential participants, I go and talk to that person and I say, "Are you willing to participate in my study?" This person says, "Yes, sure, I will do it." "Okay." Once a person agrees, I go and then I ask, "Can you refer another potential participant for this study?" That person says, "Yes," and [makes sounds] and do the same thing, the same thing, okay? So every -- each participant is going to refer another participant. That's the snowball technique, okay? Research this [inaudible] -- yes.

>> What was your choice behind using the snowball technique, as opposed to like having flyers out in the community or, you know, other kind of like mass appeal approaches to try to get a sample?

back to top

>> Yes. Well, first my idea was like, "Wow, I think I've been working a lot in many different, you know, places with Latinos," okay? And I said, "I can start from there and then see how that goes?" So that was my main idea, I was like, "Oh, I can start with, you know, all these people that I know, right, and see if they're willing to participate and who knows, right?" And believe it or not, a lot of people say no; [laughs] a lot of people say no. But most of them, you know, they said yes, so it was interesting. It was -- so that's how it started, you know? Yes. [Inaudible Comment] Hey, that can be one reason it's like -- so it's so much. It was more like, "Hey, look, let me show you everything that you're going to do. You want to do it?" It was more like, "I have this study I'm going to present to you, dah, dah, dah, dah this is what I'm doing. Are you willing to participate in my study?" And then they will say yes or no. So it's not like after, you know, reading [inaudible] like, "No, nevermind." I think I have probably one person said after, you know, getting the package, and starting to read the test, they said, "Oh, I'm done." I think it was just one; yes. But so yes. Did I answer? Yes, okay. Okay; so we used within subject repeated measures, meaning that we're repeating the same test, different language, okay?

My independent variable was language for most of my study, because we also have an independent variable which was gender, okay? Dependent variable was performance on each subscale, how did they perform under each scales of this test, okay? I used counterbalance. It's fine to eliminate order of effects. I think I shared that with you, counterbalance design, first this test, then this test, and so on, and so on. [Inaudible] Okay; I used my Nova [phonetic], okay? I had different tests. I want to make sure that I, you know, do the comparisons between all of the tests. I used -- I run a T test comparing the means, test-retest correlation coefficient, and [inaudible] and differences. What else? Okay, that's the research side. You can go to the next one. All right; so here we go. We're going to talk about valid profiles, okay? Yes; I guess I encountered some invalid profiles, okay? So what I did, what I used, I used the validity rule, according to Ben Parra [phonetic] brand greater than 79P. That's my validity rule that I used, okay, for [inaudible]. Any profiles -- right here, so we are going to see right here validity, valid and invalid. When it comes to the English, I have -- out of 63, I have 60 profiles valid. I can use them, okay? Three of them, not valid; I did not use them, okay? In English Spanish, 61 they were valid, two invalid. Castilian Spanish, 22 were valid, and one invalid. Do you have any questions why 60, 60, and 22 or do you already know that?

>> You can see that you have issues with the Castilian Spanish test.

>> Oh, I like that; I like that. [Laughs] Yes; we're going to get there. But this is smaller because remember every third person, only 33% of my sample, could speak Castilian Spanish test, that's why. [Inaudible Comment] Yes, smaller, okay? But however of the 22, 95%, most of my profiles were valid. Just one was invalid, okay, when it becomes to that test.

>> It's interesting because Castilian Spanish is a dialect --

>> Yes.

>> Of the [inaudible] the majority traditional Spanish [inaudible].

>> Yes.

>> And it's spoken in a different way too, you know.

>> Yes, yes, absolutely. Yes; oh yes and then that's -- [laughs] something -- [Inaudible Comment] From Spain; yes.

>> The very first Spanish [inaudible].

>> From Spain, Castilian from Spain, yes. That's -- all right, here we go. So okay, do you have any questions so far about this study, because now I'm going to talk about results, and you're going to go, "Oh, my gosh." Any questions?

>> Were you trying to get more or were you complete with that [inaudible]?

>> In order for me to get power, I had to have minimum 63 full. That's where I wanted to see, 63. And if I had more time and all this stuff, then probably I would have gotten more, you know, larger sample. But I wanted to stay at least with 63.

>> This is, you know, your question about like the length of this, I mean, they're answering over like 1,000 questions by the time --

>> Yes.

>> And they're doing all three surveys; and that's a lot of time.

>> Yes; it's a lot of time waiting with them, right, and making sure that they take a break if they need it, and they come back, and, you know, I mean, so many [overlapping].

>> [Inaudible] pretty impressive.

>> Yes, yes, yes. I wish -- there was a lot of work from -- in scoring every single test. You have to have a lot of data. [Laughs] All right; so let's go over the results. I'm going to give you this before I do this.

[ Background Sounds ]

I'll give you this so we could pass that.

[ Background Sounds ]

back to top

Okay; so right here, you -- this is the main focus on the study, but just in case if you want to know more, okay, about the different scales that, you know, you're going to see the differences right here. If you want to know more about what [inaudible], you know, all the [inaudible] right here is the one inside, you can go and just, you know, follow this if you're interested on knowing more information about this. Okay; that's why I just want to make sure that I have that for all of you. So what I'm going to do right now I'm going to present to all of you -- I cannot present all the results, okay? It was a lot, okay, and I will be here all day talking to you all day, okay? So what I did is that I'm going to present probably 50% of my results, okay, and then the other 50% is going be kind of like the brief summary. I'm going to present everything, but just the last part is going to be just a brief summary, okay? So the first one is going to be -- okay I compare the English and the US Spanish, okay, so this English right here, US Spanish. So everything that you're going to see right now, probably the next eight slides or something like that is going to be just those two tests, the results, the people who took those two tests only, okay, those two tests. And yes, so the first table that we have right here it's only the validity scales, okay; only the validity scales right here, okay?

So what we saw right here has the English and US Spanish, okay? So with the English, approximately one standard deviation above the norm. On trend -- we have trend right here, 359.92, okay? And guess what, 58.26, okay, very close to 60, one standard deviation above the mean, okay; meaning people are answering those questions differently from the norm, okay? Another right here that we see on F, 56.76, 69.47, very close to one standard deviation above the mean, okay? The next one is L right here, 59.46, almost one standard deviation above the mean. When it comes to the Spanish, it's going to be the same thing, one standard deviation above the norm, okay? When it comes to trend, FP, FF, RDF, and L. Okay; so this is very important, okay, because we're talking -- we're just staying right here with the validity scales, okay? So this is telling you how valid those tests are, okay, reliability and validity of this test. Oh, yes you take the test, yes, and they are the same, you're measuring the same thing, okay? But this is not telling me -- right here those result it's not really telling me that, okay, but let's see what happened. [Makes Sounds] Questions about this table? Yes.

>> You had said this before, but would you say your sample was roughly [inaudible]?

>> Yes, yes, they consider themselves bilingual, English and Spanish the same, okay, according -- so that's something that I'm going to talk about in my discussion, okay, also because I did not specifically evaluate it like for how bilingual, how much, you know, when it comes to bilingual, okay? I just asked them, "Are you bilingual?" "Yes." "Oh, yes, English, Spanish, okay, will you like to participate in my study?" Okay? Questions about this table? We're going to see more tables. No, okay; let's go to the next one. Okay; the same results that you just saw right now, now what I did, I just did this graph so you could see it from a different perspective, okay? So right here, you see this is the norm, 50, okay, this is norm right here, 50. And you see helpful to one standard deviation; just a different way to see, okay, my results. We should be having everything right here on 50, okay? All right? Let's go to the next one. Now, we're going to move from the validity scale; we're going to move to the higher order, okay, the RC scales, okay? So we're moving to the next one. I think it's right there; yes. We're moving to the next one. And what we saw right here is that it's in English and Spanish, very close to one standard deviation when it comes to the RC1 on both, okay, very close, 57.31, 57.44, okay? Now, when it comes to the test, retest correlation coefficient, guess what, everything is significant except one, the RC2 is not significant, okay?

And I don't know, just start thinking -- just start like guessing why, how, when; why is this happening, okay? Yes; I think okay that's pretty much when it comes to that. Let's go to the next one, and I'm going to show you what I just said right here. You see, 50 -- most of them are like right there, right, 50. But when it comes to the RC, which one was RC1, it's getting very close to the above one standard deviation, okay? Those people are not performing like the norm, okay, when it comes to the RC1. All right, we can go to the next one. Okay; we're going to move to a different scale, okay? Now the study is focused on the somatic, cognitive, and internalizing scales, okay? Same two tests, what do we see is that in English closer to the normative mean scores, okay? So in English, they're very close. You want to see 50s, right? So they're very close to the 50. In English and Spanish approximately one standard deviation above the norm on BRS -- okay where is BRS; right here, BRS, okay. In English and Spanish, 56, 58. It's getting very close to above one standard deviation, okay? So those are things to consider, think about. And you see 57, 57 very close to one standard deviation, okay? And okay so when it comes to the T test, retest correlation coefficient, what do we see is that we have significant -- all of them except the GIC and the [inaudible], okay, right here. And 40; the rest were significant, meaning they're performing the same, they're performing the same. When it comes to those two, right here, 14, they're not different -- differently, okay? Yes.

>> Question here.

>> Yes.

>> When you were talking about the [inaudible].

>> Yes.

>> That it should be able to test in anything.

>> Yes; yes.

back to top

>> [Inaudible] the test, did they knew they classified themselves as [inaudible], or were you there to answer any questions, or not saying coaching, but like were there times when the person might say, "I'm not sure I understand what the meaning of this question is?"

>> Yes, yes; and I was going to mention that in my -- in the discussion. Absolutely; I saw that a lot. People will come to me -- no people highlighted items. People wrote on the test, "What do you mean with this? What," question mark, so many things, okay? Absolutely, yes. And it will take -- people were like -- sometimes they were angry and they were like, "What is that? I don't understand this," and, "This is confusing. It sounds like it's the same, but it's not the same, different words, but --" I got it all. Yes, I heard everything they [overlapping] -- [Inaudible Comment] I mean, I don't know, if -- I can go back and look at that. But I think that probably, I saw way more in Spanish than in English. But however, yes, a lot of concerns also about the English, okay? So yes, concerns on all of this, more on the Castilian, more than less on the US Spanish translation; but absolutely, yes. All right; we can go to the next one. It's the same thing. So what I did, I just -- so for all of you, you can have an idea what are we talking about, which one is getting very close with one, or is one standard deviation above the mean? Okay; we want to see everybody performing right here in the 50s within the norm.

That's not the case on all of the scales, okay? All right; let's go to the next one. Okay; now we're going to compare. I compare -- we're moving to the externalizing, interpersonal, and intrascale, okay; same test. What we found is that in English and Spanish, this scored near the normative mean. Okay; they're like very -- they're very close, okay? And when it comes to the test-retest correlation coefficient, significant all of this except ACT. Okay; where is ACT? ACT, right here; 26 okay. And it should be also this, DSF, okay, performing differently in those two scales, okay? All right, let's go to the next one. Same thing, the table so you can have an idea; you see those, the ones that are kind of very close to the one standard deviation, you can see it right there. Most of them, they're there. All right; let's go to the next one. All right; how are we doing on time?

>> Good; [overlapping].

>> Good; yes, okay. We're doing -- okay, [inaudible]. Okay; and we're going to do the last one. It's going to be the [inaudible] personality psychopathology five. And what we saw is that English and Spanish [inaudible] the normative mean, okay, right here. Oh, there they are, in the 50s right here, yes, okay? When it comes to the test-retest correlation, we have significance in all of them, okay, right here, all the test-retest significant, no differences right there, okay, when it comes to the [inaudible] okay? And let's go to the next one. Still within the norm on the 50s again. All right. We can go to the next one. All right, this is it, okay? That's just one combination. And guess what, I gave you all this information just about this. [Laughs] But I also did this with this, and this with this, and anyways so many different -- but I think that that I can summarize for you, okay? This is very interesting, okay? So now we're going to do -- wait, it's a combination of the US Spanish of the patient, okay? So I'm only talking about this one right now, okay, right here, US Spanish [inaudible], just this, okay, give it to men, women, men, women. I want to see if they perform the same. I'd say probably not. I said it on my hypothesis I know which scales are going to perform differently. Okay, here we go to see if that's true.

Latino women are score higher on the FDSR, okay; so FDSR, right there. Okay, so gender differences; since there is no gender differences, we could see that everybody, women -- men and women the same. They perform the same in all the scales, okay? That is not the case. Right here on the FDS, they perform differently, okay? So that's just for you to start thinking, "Is this an appropriate test for men and women, Latinos, bilinguals?" Okay? Let's go to the next one. Okay; so when it comes to the higher order -- now we're moving, we're going to move to the higher order, okay? When it comes to the higher order, guess what, men score higher on BXP [phonetic] -- where are we BXP, yes, on BXP right here, RC4, and RC9. If you want to know, men -- if you want to know what are they, they're right there, okay? So you can have a better idea like why -- which scales they are performing women higher, men lower, whatever the case is, okay, to have an idea, okay? Yes; so again, more differences, okay; when it comes to gender. Let's go to the next -- oh do you have any questions so far? Are we doing okay? All right, let's go to the next one. Okay; now we're going to move to the schematic, okay, scales, okay? That it's pretty significance women higher scores on the MLS -- MLS right here, BRS, MSS; women very different, they're performing very different from men, okay, on the somatic and cognitive skills, okay? So significant differences, okay? Let's get to the next one. Okay; now we're going to move to the externalizing, interpersonal, and intrascale, okay? How did they perform? Men score higher in SUV and MEC [phonetic]. Substance abuse and MEC.

back to top

>> Now, [inaudible] --

>> Yes.

>> Gender differences.

>> Yes.

>> These all seem to be more or less what we'd expect to see?

>> Yes.

>> So you would conclude that the instrument's probably operating properly?

>> Well, I mean, I don't know about that because we are -- I'm hoping that the men and women are performing the same because it's the same instrument, it should be able to apply it to any gender.

>> Yes; so like men and women are different in performing --

>> Yes; well they're performing different, yes, in this test, which I was like, "Okay; I was expecting that," because guess what, when it comes to the research done in the MMPI and the MMPI A, you see a pattern, like they're performing differently, okay? So that's something to just be aware. Yes.

>> I find that interesting in the MSF these nine items here describe here the various animals and facts of nature.

>> Yes.

>> That's interesting.

>> Yes, fierce.

>> Yes; because when you look at all these, you see a lot of the internal things [inaudible] you're assessing competence, [inaudible], and then you're going to these issues about animals and acts of nature.

>> Yes. Fear of spiders -- think about this, fear of spiders. So they're reporting fear of spiders. "I don't like spiders, or snakes," or whatever it is, right? That's what they're doing. That's what they're expressing there. All right, we can go to the next one. We did this. Yes; feel free to go and check and see oh like, you know, just check which scales and what are they, you know, assessing for. Okay; so we have -- oh I forget about the camera and I've been like gazing [laughs] at you and not the camera. Okay; when it comes to [inaudible] psychopathology slide scales, we see that again, a statistically significant difference. Men score higher on AGGR. What is that, aggression, right? DSC, what is that? What is the DSC? In the science class, DSC? [Inaudible Comment] Oh, poor control impulse [phonetic]; okay, you know what I'm saying, so just for you to, you know, have an idea. Okay; so, you know, the bottom point, you know, is that we see differences, okay, in those tests. Men and women are not performing the same on those tests. And we were hoping that yes, they perform -- however according to my research, yes, there were going to be differences, okay? All right; let's go to the next one.

Okay; this is what I did. I did a summary because I can't present all of the results to all of you, okay, so I did like a quick summary. It's not too complicated, okay? So when it comes to the English and Castilian, English and Castilian right there, those two, I presented those combinations right here, and this for gender only. So now I'm going to talk about those two. English and Castilian, they perform similar, okay; and on both. And when it comes to the test-retest correlation coefficient, moderate to high, okay? The US Spanish and Castilian, those combinations, okay, compare -- they perform similar, no significant differences. And when it comes to the test-retest correlation coefficient, most of them were significant. All right; so it's kind of confusing. I don't know if it's kind of confusing. Yes; requires significant [inaudible] or different. So this is what I've [inaudible] so much -- I don't know, analyzing and just, I don't know, learning about all the different, you know, results and stuff like that. If we summarize those two comparisons, all those comparisons right here, with the other one, most likely people are not having difficulties under this scale, this scales, the specific scales, okay? It's more about questions on those scales. They're all responding so differently they can -- guess what, there's so much variance. So the computer cannot identify this is the question, this is the scale, but they're all having problems.

There's a lot of variance on my study. There's [inaudible] weird, differently, like in different ways, okay? Everybody's responding differently. I can't pinpoint where, okay? So that tells you a lot, right? I mean, not everybody's responding the same, meaning is this test perfect or not, right? Okay; when it comes to gender, that's obvious. There are differences when it comes to gender on this test, okay? All right; just let's go -- okay is it clear kind of, you know, my study, the results. Any questions? No? Okay; we can go to the next one. Ah, okay, conclusions. Like I said, if you look at it, you look at all the numbers and you said, "Wow, yes, differences, no differences." Yes, there are differences. We don't know where. It's interesting when it comes to language. When it comes to gender, it's clear that there's differences, right? But when it comes to language -- remember, you have two differing variables, language and gender. So when it comes to language, I don't know where all the differences are. There's a lot of variance, okay? It's something to keep in mind. Yes.

>> Well, like, you know, if you have -- if you're working with a bilingual client, you feel more comfortable using the Spanish -- US Spanish translation, or the Castilian Spanish?

>> Yes; and I like that question because as of right now, I question both.

>> Does that allow [inaudible] use the Castilian or the other -- the US one?

>> Well, me as a clinician what I do -- what we do is that we try to do research on the test, right? We want to know about the psychometrics of those tests. We want to know about the validity/reliability of those tests. We have so many options of it, MMPI, the PAI, the MCMI, we have the Rorschach. Which one am I going to use? Well, let me go do research and see which one has better psychometrics, better validity and reliability. That's the reason of this study because I want my audience, I want people to know, yes, it has good validity and reliability. No, it doesn't. Watch out, be aware. Caution if you're going to use this test. If you're going to be using it, make sure that you use other tests in addition to this test, a battery, or do a really good clinical interview, or whatever you have to do, okay, not just based on this, and this is it because according to my study, watch out, be aware. Did I answer?

>> Are they using both right now?

back to top

>> Well, I don't know what they're using. [Laughs] I don't know what people are using. But let me say this to you. If you had to choose from the MMPI 2 and the MMPI-2-RF, most clinicians are still using MMPI 2; that's one, okay? Now, if they get to use MMPI-2-RF, okay, and they have to use which translation they have to use, I hope they're using this because not only is this closer, but I really don't know what they're using; really don't know what people are using to be honest with you.

>> And the MMPI 2 is just the US Spanish translation, or is there also a Sicilian?

>> There are so many translations when it comes to the Spanish translations, yes, different Spanish translations, yes. But remember this, there are not that many studies done with Latinos, bilingual Latinos regardless of test you're talking about. There are few with the MMPI, few with the MMPI 2, none with the MMPI-2-RF; because it's the first one. [Laughs]

>> Why do you think a lot of clinicians are still using the MMPI 2, and not the RF2?

>> I think there's a lot of stuff. You know, there's a -- like I said, I think it's 60% of people is going for the MMPI, 50% for the MMPI-2-RF. It's just divided. Some people still believe in MMPI, some people still believe in MMPI-2-RF. And however, if we follow the American Psychological Association, we have to use the most updated tests, right, which is the MMPI-2-RF, not an edition before that, right? All right. So I don't know what they're using. [Inaudible Comment] 2RF. The 2RF; and they should be using [inaudible]. I don't know, I don't know. I don't want to get [inaudible]. [Laughs]

[ Inaudible Comments ]

I mean, and let me do this, I don't know well we have bilingual people. So let me do this, let me go ahead and send this out, look at one item. Let's pick question number six, and read all of number six on the three different tests and see if you can find a difference. You're going to find a difference. So yes, I have a question right here. Okay.

>> Yes; [inaudible], the number of coefficient credentialed certifiable Latinos counselors out there, you know, comparatively to the population as compared to Anglos to the population. So would you end up having more Anglos [inaudible] Spanish tests, or it would just be English tests [inaudible] bilingual and they're just going with that, and then they're not really getting the other results from the other tests to compare? I'm not sure if you understand where I'm going. So they're making their basis primarily on the English ones, you know, and not taking into account the cultural differences? I mean, is this --

>> I hope that's not the case, okay, I hope that's not the case. If you're asking me my practice, the way I practice is totally the opposite. That's just why I like to do all this research. And I've done other -- many other students and other psychological testing to see, "What are we using? Is this perfect for his population or not? Which one should I be using," right? Maybe because I want to be educated, I want to know and to learn what is the perfect to use, right? I might be able to [inaudible]. I really don't know what other people are doing. But I really hope that they're at least doing some research on those instruments and learning what's out there; what should we be using or not? Did I answer? What was the second part of your question? What was the second part?

>> Well, you know, in comparison to the Anglos [inaudible], are you trying to [inaudible] in the number of the female counselors available out there percentage-wise in the population, and there's not enough of them out there to be able to deal with the issues [inaudible] necessarily to be able to --

>> Well, yes, I mean, if you're asking me about my own personal experience, I will say yes, definitely. Any hospital, anyplace that I've worked, I've always been pulled on the side, "Please [inaudible] translate. Please do psychological tests in Spanish, do a Spanish, Spanish, Spanish test." Yes; there's not that many counselors and doctors, I don't know, bilingual. I mean, probably, I don't know if it's compared to non-Latinos, probably yes, it's a big difference, yes, yes, yes. But however, that's -- I mean, okay, we can have probably more, you know, Caucasian therapists or whatever, that's fine, but I mean, if they do, you know, their homework, they find out about those tests, the difference of the validity and reliability, they're [inaudible] you know what I'm saying? Just learning, learning about those differences.

>> But just to follow up with his comment, you don't have enough Latinos giving permission and more Anglos [inaudible], right, because that's actually the only thing that you're relying is on [overlapping].

back to top

>> On the test, yes.

>> It should be the test, [inaudible], they're not giving you the right [inaudible].

>> So I hope, you know, us, you know, therapists, you know, we learn that we use a battery of psychological tests. So we use the MMPI-2-RF in addition to three, four, five, six other tests. So every time I test at the hospital whatever place that I'm testing, I don't just use MMPI 2 or 2-RF. I use that and five other tests to confirm or not, right, right, and to guide me, you know, through this, you know, my end result. Yes.

[ Inaudible Comments ]

Absolutely.

[ Inaudible Comments ]

Yes; and seeing dead people, your mom who passed away, your grandmother who passed away, it's very common in our culture, right? And probably some -- you know, and a clinician might be thinking, "Oh, my gosh, he's hearing and seeing things, right, schizophrenia, oh" okay? And guess what, yes, that happened. I mean, I encounter those cases. But I had to change diagnosis, right? They have treatment plan, medication and everything for their patient, [inaudible] schizophrenia, Latina from Guatemala. And she came to do, you know, some testing or whatever because like, "What?" I was like, "Yes; we don't think that's schizophrenia." And she's been treated for schizophrenia for a long time. I was like, "Okay, let me do this." Well, guess what, she would continuously see her mom who passed away. "I talked to my mom and I see my mom. We're like, "Yes; that's perfectly fine in our culture. Why not, right?" They do that and many other things that -- she talked to her mom, whatever. But, you know, that's perfect, that's fine, right? She was diagnosed with schizophrenia, yes. So we need to be taking a lot of classes, you know, with different cultures, right, not just Latino culture, any culture. Are we doing okay with questions?

All right. Let's do -- so we were there. Okay, we're going to move to the next slide, and [inaudible]. Okay; so I talked about this, okay; yes, there's many complaints about the items, okay, in all the different languages. They highlighted the item, they wrote on the test, they circled the words, they got upstairs, and they gave it back to me upstairs [inaudible]. They did so many things, okay; yes. So that's something to consider. Now, if you connect that with the way they perform, you're like, "Okay, probably, yes, they were really having difficulty with those items," right?

[ Inaudible Comment ]

You know what, to be honest with you, because that's out of the scope of this study, but yes I was just kind of interested in just to see and yes, there was a lot of, for example, excitado. Okay; that word -- they highlighted, they circled, they questioned that word so much. Okay; being excited, okay, use the word excited. In Spanish, if you translate it, "excitado," and that means being sexually aroused. Why are you asking me that, okay? [Laughter] Stop asking me that. So yes, absolutely, they circle. Because probably one day, I don't know, I'm going to go back to look in the booklets and see what else, but that's one session -- I mean, one word, yes. What's the other one, "colegio," "college," that's another one, okay? So "colegio," "college" translated in Spanish as "colegio," guess what, it could be like different, right, different definitions. It can be you went to private school. It doesn't mean you went to college, okay? "Colegio" can be that you went to, I don't know, probably -- what is the other like mentoring, right? Is it "colegio" so it's like primary school, okay? Nothing to do with college or grad school, nothing to do with it. And then [inaudible] answering those items, right? I want to get -- so the question is what are they answering?

>> Because didn't they work for that when they translated stuff, I mean, some of those things? Didn't they -- you would think that they would have [inaudible] double meanings to words and --

>> Of course, these are the people that translate it. Yes; according to the people who translated those instruments it's perfectly fine.

>> Is that a valid word, "excitado?"

>> "Excitado," in Spain, yes, [overlapping], yes

>> In Spain; [inaudible].

>> Yes, that's the way, it's "excitado." [Inaudible Comment] We're not going to understand it. We're not going to give it that meaning. Yes, right here, in Spain, yes, you will give it that meaning, so --

back to top

[ Inaudible Comments ]

All right; so okay two very important things that, you know, we need to consider right here when it comes to the results. We saw that [inaudible], those are validity skills. Those are the skills that are telling us a lot about this test, how valid and reliable this test is. And we saw, you know, having, you know, they -- okay [inaudible] okay, yes, they perform with one -- almost one standard deviation above the mean. So that's telling you that they're not responding the same identically. They're having difficulty understanding those questions, okay? So if you stop right there, you'd go like, "Oh, my God, I don't know if I should be using this test," because of the validity skills, the most important skills from all these tests. All are all important, but -- anyway so yes, on those, [inaudible], and for sure, we saw gender differences, right, in this study. Okay; so we can go to the next one. [Makes Sounds]. Let's talk about the strength. What is good about the study, okay? What are the good parts of this study? I talk about them [inaudible]. Okay. This is the first study done on the MMPI-2-RF, period, with a group of bilingual Latinos. There's nothing else out there, okay? And I hope that way more is coming very, very near in the future, okay?

So that's the main strengths, okay? Then another strength is that -- okay we need to increase -- now we know we need to increase the norms of the MMPI-2-RF. The norms of the MMPI, MMPI A -- the MMPI, the MMPI-2-RF I think the total of 2,500. Out of 2,500 we have 73 Latinos in the norm only, okay? And not just that, when it comes to the MMPI-2-RF, guess what, they got rid of I don't know how many items and it dropped to 66. Less Latinos in the norm. We need to include Latinos in the norm of those tests. All right, hmm, actually because the Latino population is increasing; we already talked about that, right? There's a desperate need for a Spanish language list norms, okay, I said that, before the instrument can be used to make diagnostic and clinical decisions for Spanish-speaking. Be aware; if you want to use it, be aware there's problems with those instruments, period, okay? So my recommendation is going to be right here, increase those norms. Put more Latinos into those norms so you can have a better idea how we perform these types of tests. And so we can go to the next one. Questions right there? Does this make sense? This is sort of summary conclusion of everything that I just presented to all of you. All right; but guess what, there's also limitations of my study, okay? First limi

tation is I have to read carefully Latinos because they [inaudible]. Okay. We cannot generalize this study. Twelve Latinos, why, because most of my participants were in a medium to high socioeconomic status. I don't know how people -- Latino, bilingual Latinos with low socioeconomic status would perform on these tests. I don't know. So we cannot generalize it, okay? The same thing applies to levels of education. Most of them were educated, had an associates degree, bachelor's degree, masters degree, doctoral degree, okay? [Inaudible]. Okay; I did not evaluate it, bilingualism. I just asked, "Are you bilingual?" "Oh, yes, I speak English and Spanish." "Are you willing to participate in the study?" That's it, okay? So that's another limitation right there. Really I wanted to ask, I want to evaluate how bilingual you are, right? Okay. [Inaudible] in both English and Spanish. And my sample was submitted here, California, San Diego. This is it.

>> [Inaudible] your study is significant in that it's among the first to be done.

>> Yes.

>> In this particular area, which -

>> So early.

>> Necessitates that this gets published.

>> Yes, yes, yes; and we're in the process of that. [Laughs]

>> Yes; to get the snowball effect [inaudible].

>> Yes, absolutely. But this is just the beginning now. I hope, you know, more studies, you know, way more, more, so we can learn and we can find out, basically I see a pattern. Yes, the same thing that you saw in your sample, ooh, we continue to see if you look at it. Let's be very careful when it comes to using those instruments with bilingual Latina, okay?

>> You said other studies -- or other tests have been translated into Spanish as well?

>> Yes; most of the psychological tests.

>> [Inaudible] What do you recommend [inaudible]?

>> This one number one because I've done like in many other, you know, psychological tests. So this is one that I'm very interested on, MMPI 2. However, I know the dilemma or the, you know, 50-50 said, you know, people they say, "I like that MMPI. No; I like that MMPI-2-RF." I was like, "Well, let's give more information to people that like or don't like the MMPI-2-RF."

>> Do you see similar issues with the other tests when you they get translated?

back to top

>> Yes, yes, yes; not as much as, you know, with those tests, okay?. This is just like a lot, like way more, way more. And especially with, you know, the one translated in Spain, that's the one that I, you know --

>> It would be interesting to see, you know, a year from now like, you know, as more research continues, what [inaudible].

>> Yes; and I'm going to, you know, recommend how to do it; you know, just continue to do these type of studies where it's, you know, [inaudible], move this, and do this, keep doing, you know, whatever so we can, you know, just take care of those -- all sorts of problems. [Inaudible Comment] Yes. [Laughs] Yes. And I don't know if you are aware of this, but my committee Chuck was my reader, he was in my committee. And I had Dr. Butcher, who's created MMPI 2 also in my [laughs] committee as my reader, and Dr. Silvarez [phonetic], my chair. But --

>> I remember when we, you know, [inaudible].

>> Yes. Right now I'm just trying to speak -- well I'm working with some edits, like editing and doing, you know, tables, you know, how they want it and, you know, things like that. So and right now, you know, I'm taking and seeing which, you know, articles I wanted to publish. And so we are in the process of -- I'm just like breathing right now, so like seven years of school. [Laughs] I'm like, "Oh, my God." And everything continues, right? If you're done with something and then, "Oh, do post-doc now." "Okay." And -- but we are still working on everything. Everything is coming along like -- but definitely be aware it's coming somewhere. [Laughs] You're going to read more about this study. And if you're interested in reading my entire dissertation, please let me know; I will send it to you. I will send you the entire dissertation. And it should be available through ProQuest by now. All right, so are there questions? Yes.

>> Just one question, Sequoia.

>> Yes.

>> [Inaudible]. When you used to go to like [inaudible]?

>> No. No. I was going there more to do like social services. [Inaudible Comment] Yes, yes, yes. I used to go every year to Cuba and do special services. Yes; I used to bring like, you know, school supplies, go to different schools, and do a little bit of, you know, like presentations, just very brief and stuff like that. So I used to do it like every year, and I did it for a long time; but then I stopped. Yes; doctoral school it's just like, "Ah." You need extra hours, more than 24 hours. Yes. But yes, anyway, it's okay. So let's see, recommendations; so this is what I'm recommending, okay, for future study. We need to replicate this study in different settings, okay, where Latinos are found including employment, okay? So we want to go employment studies and administer those tests, okay? See how that goes. We want to [inaudible], absolutely, let's see how they perform; and psychiatric studies, psych hospitals. This is what I've been testing in the last four or five years, psych hospitals. First recommendation, okay, keep in mind my study was not in any of those, okay, settings, so. There is a special -- there is especially a need to conduct studies with bilingual [inaudible] urgently decided to evaluate and define mental illness or dysfunction. Yes. Again, so this study -- I mean this test right here, the MMPI was originally designed to evaluate psych patients; or we wanted to study with psych patients, right?

We want to see if, "Oh, that's true, they perform the same," right? How are they performing? Another recommendation, okay, "Further studies should include measures of bilingualism," like I said, we want to replicate this study, but guess what, assess bilingualism, levels of bilingualism, okay? A culture that's stressed, and also gender roles. In Latinos that's still very important. Okay; I think touched a little bit on that. Gender role is very important to Latinos. Women do this, men do this. "No, we should do this." Okay; we want to answer those things, okay, and make sure that that's not, you know, affecting the results of those tests. Another recommendation, okay, future studies should focus on identifying objectable items, okay, like I said. I recommend that when they're doing those -- administering those tests, they ask the person, "Hey, circle, highlight the items that you have difficulty with. Let me know," okay? I did not ask my [inaudible] to do that, however they did. So, you know, I recommend then, you know, they highlight it, they do something so you can see if -- like what I was saying if you can see a pattern, "Oh, my God, everybody is having problem with item number 312." I don't know.

Future studies should focus on -- okay. You can go to the next one. All right. Okay, more recommendations. There is the need to replicate this investigation in different -- okay, parts of the country, okay, including Puerto Rico, anyplace where people speak Spanish. I recommend that let's go and do it in different places, right? Go in Puerto Rico. There is the need for researchers to further examine the psychometric properties of both the English and Spanish. Okay. okay. So we need the opportunity to do research on this study, period -- on these instrument, period. The psychometrics of this study, validity, reliability, let's keep doing it; let's keep doing it. And if you're going to use the MMPI 2-RF with Latinos, bilingual Latinos, be careful. Use caution. I think that's it. You can go to the next one. Oh, I don't know, [inaudible]. I did it.

[ Inaudible Comments ]

Absolutely, yes, yes, that would be very interesting to do. So I had one person from Puerto Rico who participated in my study, and wow she was so confused as well sometimes on both of the instruments translated in Spanish. She had less difficulty with the one in English. So very different Spanish in Puerto Rico. So that's why I would recommend you need to go all over the place [inaudible] anyplace that you know that have -- I mean Latinos who speak Spanish, let's test. [Inaudible Comment] Yes, absolutely, way more different, yes. [Inaudible Comment] Cuba, Guatemala, I mean, you name it, absolutely, yes, we need to just, you know -- but, I mean, I don't know, it's just my hope is that this is just the beginning of something, and people can continue to do more research study on the, you know, psychometrics of those tests. And we are using it all the time in psychology.

>> Sequoia, did you see any other languages -- or any other studies in [inaudible]?

>> Yes, yes, yes. Yes; I don't know all the details, but yes there's also differences, not -- what I remember not as much as, you know, what I saw with the English and Spanish, okay? So that tells you, you know, how they're translated in different languages, who's translated, where are they, you know, when it comes to like, "Oh, yes, this is perfect. No, this is not perfect. Let's keep, you know, working on that translation." But really, I don't know. I have like no idea. But yes, I mean many instruments are translated in many different languages, and my focus is English and Spanish.

[ Inaudible Comment ]

It is very interesting because I don't know if there are like strict guidelines But let me tell you something [laughs] I discovered. [Inaudible] the US translation is the same from the MMPI 2, exactly the same. So what they did, they got -- remember it's 567 items in MMPI 2, 338 in MMPI-2-RF. They take those 338 items already translated from the MMPI 2, and they use it on the MMPI-2-RF. And they say, "Oh, this is typical; we're fine. We have it all translated." You see? So I have no idea how, what proof, who doesn't, how this works, and stuff like that. But it's -- that's the way it was done. So yes, it's interesting to find out more about who does the translations, who approved the translations, who says yes or no, and things like that, absolutely, yes. I think this is applicable, for example, that when in Spain well, it's fine, you go and use this in Spain and they're going to have probably no problem because, you know, its' a language that they use there, right? Okay. The thing is when you bring it here, like what is this? Yes. [Inaudible Comment] What was that?

back to top

>> None of the Spanish residents would be in one group at all [inaudible].

>> Absolutely, yes; we need to work on those norms.

>> Do you know anything about the people who published this article [inaudible]?

>> Do I know anything about what?

>> The people who published those studies that you refer to [inaudible]?

>> What do you mean like if I know anything?

>> Well, like for example, like [inaudible].

>> Oh, yes, yes, yes, yes. [Inaudible Comment] Well, that is telling you that who's doing the research, right, and who's not doing the research.

>> Isn't Dr. Velasquez, was he associated with [inaudible]?

>> Yes; Velasquez is a Latino, and he's one -- it looks like he's the only one. And also we have Rossi [phonetic]; she's Latina. She went to SCP. So there are still two studies --

[ Inaudible Comment ]

Yes; yes. [Inaudible Comment] So we want to do -- yes, we want to definitely do more [inaudible], and --

>> Have any of the researchers [inaudible] off of their studies?

>> I don't think so. They make recommendations like me. You will see in my dissertation all the recommendations. I hope that you will take the opportunity to do this study with these modifications and stuff like that. But, you know, people are just not doing it. You know, we need to get out this -- especially more Latinos to do research, right; [laughs] to do this type of -- anyone. But if we did want Latinos to do research, just like, well, ideal. Yes. [Inaudible Comment] Yes. Thank you very much.

>> We can stop recording [inaudible] now.

back to top