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Transcript for November 3, 2017

>> Okay, hi everybody, okay here we have the audio working now. My name is Sunny Peterson [phonetic]. I'm an instructor right now for the policy class at the Armaran [phonetic] nurses program here a [inaudible]. And I'm finishing up my PhD through the University of Arizona, a PhD in rehabilitation education and counseling. So, thank you for letting me present this information. It's actually a lot of the same information I'll be presenting this coming Monday at my dissertation defense. So, basically this is a new thing I've been working on with my dissertation. And, we'll just go ahead and go to the next slide. And I'll be explaining the format of the dissertation which actually [inaudible] incorporates three different articles, but the focus is all basically on how to increase the numbers of people at the doctoral level, that have disabilities. So some of these first stars are just talking about how people of disabilities are underrepresented at the doctoral level. If you can see the graph it's just under 7% of people that got doctoral degrees in 2013 had a disability.

So there's some underrepresentation. And then also, other with people of disabilities, and part of my dissertation has to do with intersectionality, which is the combination of having more than one underrepresented identity. So of the people that got their doctoral degrees that have disabilities in 2013, I'm sorry, can you go on to the next slide? So, this is just a breakdown of how many were male compared to how many female. You can see like black, African Americans people of disabilities are very underrepresented at the doctoral level. And you can see that most people that have disabilities are actually US citizens [inaudible] there's a lot of people that come from other countries to the United States to get graduate degrees so there were a quite a few you compare that third graph to [inaudible] you can see how many were US citizens compared to how many came from other countries.

So, these next few slides are just talking a little bit more about exactly where the underrepresentation is. So, 2,000 students were members of underrepresented minority groups, especially underrepresented in STEM degree programs. And our next slide, yes, students of disabilities and students who are members of other cultural minority groups are underrepresented at the doctoral level, therefore we have underrepresentation in faculty positions in higher education. And the next slide, [inaudible] in 2006 actually women are over half of the people that are obtaining doctoral degrees, but women are still underrepresented in tenure track positions and full professor positions. And then in the next slide women and [inaudible] culture minority groups at the doctoral level are underrepresented in administrative leadership positions. So those are the positions like dean and president.

Even now kind of across the board there's underrepresentation and you can see even now, women are getting more doctoral degrees there's still that underrepresentation. And on the next slide, this is why it's really important that all people are encouraged to get doctoral degrees. Number one, there's over 9 million new jobs in some technology, engineering, and mathematics. We usually call those STEM fields for short, so there's all these increasing jobs in the STEM fields, must of those require a master's degree. And also, according to Bureau of Labor statistics, the largest group of jobs that's increasing are the jobs that require a master's degree. So there's a huge need for educators that have graduate degrees. Because we need people at the PhD level in order to teach at the master's level. There's also some research that stresses the importance of having diverse faculty. Because the students that are coming in are more diverse.

And then especially in our field of rehabilitation counseling, there a big push right now for more research. So that we have more evidence for practice that we can use in our fields. And the next slide, so some of the things I talk about in my dissertation in the three articles, I'm going to talk about the access and inclusion and how to treat STEM classes and that affects access and inclusion [inaudible] graduate from high school and go on to college. And the impact of intersectional identities and then the last article has to do with access and inclusional statistics and research methodology coursework that everybody has to take at that PhD level. So even if people aren't going into STEM doctoral program, there's still that research and statistics that can be a barrier. So again, it's my dissertation made up of three different articles. But one focuses on high school and STEM, one focuses, it's a qualitative study, actually we can go on to the next slide because these are the articles. My first article, I looked some data that was collected, it's the high school longitudinal study of 2009. I was lucky I had a class, and the whole class was on ordinary least squares regression. And the teacher [inaudible] us analyze these big data sets.

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So I looked at that data set and I looked at the years that they had gotten services under individualized educational plan, so they had some kind of disability. And they qualified for free and reduced lunch. So I'll talk a little bit more about that. But then it was the second article with the qualitative study where I interviewed nine people that either they are just finishing their doctoral program or they graduated in the doctoral program. And everybody had a disability and then they had identified as at least one other underrepresented identity. And then the third article I wrote up some recommendations based on universal design in instruction and learning concepts. I applied those to some concepts that everybody has to learn in statistics and research methodology. So that whole article is recommendations on how to incorporate the universal design techniques. And then I have a couple hands-on activities that I'm pretty sure we'll have time to do today.

So my overall research questions are, [inaudible] to disabilities, are they are on an academic path that's going to lead to completing STEM classes in graduate school? What are some barriers that people face when they are going all the way to the doctoral program, and who and what encourages access and inclusion in doctoral programs? Especially for the people that have the intersectional identities. And then finally, what universal design principles can we incorporate into graduate level research methodology coursework. So that we're making sure to be inclusive of all students. So now I'm going to talk a little bit about the first article. And then these next couple slides are just some background on why while I looked socio-economic status and the variable I used was that free and reduced lunch because it's categorical rather than a continuous. And then the STEM classes are continuous. So, what is important to look at, you know [inaudible] and ethnicity and socio-economic status, that still continues to affect education in the high school.

And it affects who diagnosed the disability in the first place and then it affects if somebody has a disability are they served in mainstream classroom or are they segregated? You know are they encouraged to take STEM classes or are they in a segregated class where that's not really a priority? And then there's depending on where the school is and if a lot of the families in the are low socio-economic status, there's tax decisions that are made in the school district and some of the schools don't have as many resources as schools in wealthier areas. Essentially that article I looked a lot at what's in the literature as far as who's been talking about those issues. So, the next slide gives some information about socio-economic status and IEP services. This is just in some of the literature that I found. They've shown that socio-economic status affects the level of academic coursework that students are taking. Like I said before it affects if they're [inaudible] in a general ed class or if they're in a segregated class. And that has a lot to do with the advocacy that the student receives. Usually if the parents are educated and they're higher socio-economic status there tends to be more advocacy and somebody helping that student to make sure they get support in a mainstream classroom so that they can participate in that mainstream classroom.

There's quite a bit of information on satisfaction with IEP planning and services. And a lot of those parents and students have showed that they have not been satisfied with that whole process. And then regarding the issue about [inaudible] some minority backgrounds and disabilities. I kind of talked about this a little bit before, or just mentioned it, but African American males are more likely than all other races to be diagnosed as emotionally disturbed. And then yes, [inaudible] are male and some minority backgrounds are those from lower socio-economic families are more likely to be diagnosed with a learning disability. All this talks affects if these students are encouraged to take STEM, if affects if they're rated with a disability it's not really to their advantage if they're going to end up in a segregated class and not encouraged to take those classes that are going to lead to college. So again, going back to the study, in this article, and this is where I looked at books if they had an IEP and if they qualified for free and reduced lunch. Because that's actually is what happens, if you don't look at that interaction, it looks like all the kids that get an IEP are actually doing fine.

Because the ones that get the extra advocacy kind of cancel out the ones that are struggling. So that's why it's really important and that's what I learned in this class because I told the instructor I was super cynical. I was like I think the ones that are getting an IEP aren't going to take as many STEM classes. And I was actually surprised to find out, no that really wasn't significant. And then it's when I noticed there was something when I took socio-economic status out of the equation, then my instructor said well, do an interaction affect. And that's how it showed up. Because that combination of qualifying for free and reduced lunch and getting that IEP services or having a disability, then that group takes fewer STEM classes. So on this slide, that's the equation for the ordinary least squares regression, including the interaction. And then my research question was, yes, what is the effect of having an IEP and being eligible for free and reduced lunch? And then I looked at my dependent variable, the independent variable and then it's important to include control variables so we know that the results aren't being skewed by the type of disability.

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So all these things are kind of connected with whether the socio-economic status or whether those issues with the disability and the ability to take STEM classes and so forth. So that's why I used those control variable. And this next slide is more information about like specifically with the ordinary least squared model, you have avoid an omitted variable bias. So that's why you put in those control variables. So what I found in the analysis again was that if the students qualified for free and reduced lunch and they had an IEP, they took on average 0.08 fewer [inaudible] units of STEM classes. And that [inaudible] unit, I think I have that on one of the slides, I thought I did. It's for a whole academic year, like one class every day for a whole academic year. So it's I mean it's pretty significant. So, some of the limitations in the next slide, it was a large data set and a lot of the information that was captured was student and parent self-report and self-report by high school personnel.

A lot of the people that responded to the survey didn't indicate if the student had gotten an IEP or not so counted those "don't know" so they didn't affect the calculations. It would have been best if I could have instead of free and reduced lunch for the student, if I could have done the percentage of free and reduced lunch at the school because that's a better indicator of the resources at the school. But that wasn't available to the public. Like some of these variables weren't available to everybody. So there were some limitations, but I still think it's interesting information. And I had emailed hoping that people could get some ethics units for this presentation so I'll follow up. I know I didn't see that in the last email. But I did want to talk about the code of ethics in relation to these issues. So, I know there's some people online that are in my class and I've been talking a lot about social model vs. medical model. So, really my theoretical direction [inaudible] for this dissertation is like how to increase access.

How can we as rehabilitation professionals advocate for more accessibility and inclusion in especially school environment. And especially in academia at the doctoral level. So there are sections of the code of ethics and that section C that have to do with advocacy and accessibility. And it talks in there about how it is our responsibility to educate our colleagues and do what we can to increase access and accessibility in the environment. And it does go back to the social model vs. the medical model. If you're always putting the responsibility on the student with the disability - well, you need to go to the disability resource center and you need to work it out with your teacher. You know, I'm going to give you all this education about what your rights are, but basically it's your responsibility. I mean we're really kind of perpetuating that medical model where the problem lies with the individual with the disability and it's their responsibility and we've got to fix them and make sure they have accommodations so that they can go into this classroom that's not designed to be inclusive to everybody.

So, yes, I'd encourage everybody take a look at that section C in the code of ethics, and there's some specific language about accessibility and our role to make sure the environments are acceptable. And then also, there's a section, in section G seven B and this is the next slide. And I do talk about intersectionality in this presentation, so section G talked about diversity issues in assessment. And this kind of goes back to what I talking about with, you know it's our job to be aware that sometimes there's bias with disability. Especially I talked the learning disabilities, or the youths that are being labeled as like emotionally disturbed or having behavioral issues, sometimes those labels aren't accurate and they're not helpful and it's kind of our job to see if that's affecting somebody's access and inclusion in high school or in their transition to college, then it's really our responsibility and our ethical responsibility to collaborate and communicate with other people in this system to make sure that type of discrimination isn't happening. And that everybody's getting encouraged to pursue higher education.

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So again, on the next slide, section C advocacy and accessibility, it says right in there at the individual group and institutional and societal levels, it's our job to promote opportunity and access. And to remove potential barriers. So we do this by that's why I like having this opportunity to come and present because I think most of the people on this call are in academic environment and you know we can educate other about using that universal design and making classrooms more accessible to everybody. And that helps everybody, not only people of disabilities. So these are some things you can ask yourself, especially if you're working with transition-aged youth. Are you seeing students with disabilities that are served in an integrated classroom? Are the students with disabilities encouraged to take STEM classes? Are they encouraged to pursue higher education? And then are we working to empower clients, parents, and legal guardians by making sure everybody has information on self-advocacy? So those are just some things with the code of ethics to keep in mind. So the second article in the qualitative study, I looked a lot more at intersectionality theory and that's tied in a lot more with that article, so on the next slide.

If you're not familiar, Kimberle Crenshaw, is in the legal field, she's a lawyer and a professor at, I forget, it's one of the Ivy League law schools, I think. She came up with this theory of intersectionality in the late 80's, early 90's. And, basically what she said it's not like when you have an underrepresented identity and then you have another underrepresented identity, it's not like they just add on to each other. You kind of end up with a whole different experience. Like some of the examples that come to mind are, like people of color that are in the LGBT community and sometimes they'll feel like there's some discrimination. Or when you think about students from underrepresented groups that end up going to college and encounter a whole different culture. And so it's more than just some basic things to do with your identity or the way that you look, sometimes it can be a big kind of culture shock. So it's important to kind of understand that the different aspects of identity, you have to be more mindful of you know how somebody's experience and people don't fit in boxes, you know?

And I do think that's why it's important to look at intersectionality and I think I talk about this on the next slide. When we think about it, over half of the people with disabilities are female. So that's an intersectional identity right there. And then there's a lot of other people with disabilities that have other underrepresented identities. So that's kind of why I really wanted to look at this when I was talking with people that had gotten their doctoral degrees. Because there really wasn't a lot of research in this area. So like I said, people with intersectional identities experience discrimination in different ways and of a different quality than individuals who identify as having only one underrepresented cultural characteristic. So there are a few articles that are out there in the literature now that are linking intersectionality theory to disabilities. Actually my advisor, Dr. Shaw, and that's her article from 2012, and they looked at employment discrimination complaints and intersectionality. And it was higher for people that had an intersectional identity. And then Hershner [phonetic] was the one that pointed out there's actually a lot of intersectionality in the disability community. And then I did find one article this [inaudible] article where they interviewed like three women that had disabilities, and one was getting a bachelor's, one was getting a master's, and one was getting a doctorate degree.

So my research questions with this article, I wanted to find out what was the motivation to pursue a doctorate degree? What were some barriers that people faced? And then, what was helpful as they went through their doctoral program? So like I said, non-participants and everybody had a disability plus another underrepresented identity. Everybody was interviewed by telephone, there were a couple of I was able to interview face to face. And then I [inaudible] the interview and then I looked for themes and then I compared the themes to what information is out there in the existing literature. So this next slide just has some information about the participants. So, it's five women four men. Yes, five of the people were LGBT. One participant was African American, one was Latina, one was Asian American. One of the participants was a veteran. And there was a pretty good age range. The youngest was 25, the oldest was 62. And then some of the disabilities that were represented, two people had ADHD, one participant was deaf, one had a visual impairment, one person uses a wheelchair, one has rheumatoid arthritis, two participants had bi-polar disorder, one had AIDS.

Three participants were recovering alcoholics and very active in AA. Two participants were in STEM related fields, one in engineering, one in psychology. And then two got their doctoral degrees in business management and the rest were in education-related fields like rehab counseling, special education, gifted education, international and multicultural education. And yes, some of the participants were bi-lingual, one spoke three languages. And then everybody, I looked at everybody was doing with their degree, whether they were faculty. Two were on the dissertation and two were in post-doctoral programs. So again, there was a good range of people that had been working in their field for a while and people that were newer graduate. And then I had eight interview questions, the interviews all took about 45 minutes to an hour. So I talked to people about how they saw themselves in regards to their identities and if that impacted their experiences in graduate school. And they shared with me about challenges or barriers that they ran into during their program and things that were helpful. It was eight questions and really there was a lot of information that was shared based on those eight questions.

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So, the after I looked at all slides, everybody was recorded and I did the transcripts and then I went through and looked for themes and so forth. So there was a lot of information shared about identity, and I'm trying to think to think about what I should share because there was so much that was shared. I had one participant and her family identity and her identity as an Asian was really interesting to talk to her about because she really didn't share anything about being deaf until she got to graduate school. Her parent didn't want people to know she was deaf, so she didn't learn sign language until she got to graduate school. And then was going to conferences and realized that she was missing a lot of the information that she didn't have an interpreter. So she hadn't even used a lot of resources. And so a lot of her processing graduate school was getting connected with other people that had a disability identity. And she talked a lot about how she found a mentor who was deaf on campus and now is really connected with lots of other academics that are deaf. And they all share information. And it's a good support.

And then it was really interesting because I got to hear a lot about people's experiences working with their dissertation committees and that whole process. Yes, one thing I really do want to talk about is getting through the statistics classes. Because like I said at the doctoral level, you have to learn how to be able to interpret research articles. You have to take statistics classes and learn about research. And especially in the PhD programs you're expected to know how to put a quantitative research project together. So it's quite a bit of statistics and research methodology classes. And the participants that had other disabilities that didn't really affect the ability to like connect with others in the classes or like hear the information or see the information, a lot of the [inaudible] they got in study groups, they met with professors during office hours or they got extra support that was there to help get through statistics classes. But the participant that had a visual impairment and then the one that was deaf, I was kind of surprised at what they shared. One got her PhD a while back, but the teacher, when she asked, can you please enlarge the print? She said, no, I'm not going to do that for you. So the student just had to make friends with some of the classmates and just do her best. And then I think she said that after five weeks, the teacher finally saw that the person kept coming to class, so the teacher started enlarging things.

But I was kind of surprised, because this wasn't that long ago, and you know school is supposed to be accommodating. And then the one that was deaf, and that instructor, and this I think was less than a couple of years ago. Because she had just finished her program, so the accommodation was a captioner and the instructor kept talking to fast. And they'd ask him to slow down and they got to the point where the student just said I need to set up an independent study and couldn't even participate in the rest of the class. I was kind of surprised that the [inaudible] and the disability resource center. And these are big major schools. I guess that was surprising to me, but at the same time, it's like well this is why there's such a barrier. Not only grad school, but especially the science or math based classes. But you know, the important thing is that there was a lot shared about mentors and the support that people got from their classmates. Just a lot of resiliency and people got through their programs.

>> There's a question

>> Okay.

>> [inaudible] work accommodation barriers for the student disability services?

>> Yes, I think all that was recorded. I'm not actually not sure about the one with the visual impairment but, yes, obviously the resource center found out because it was the captioner that was having all those problems with the instructor. And that actually was one thing I found in the literature, in the literature it talked a lot about students at the bachelor level they talk a lot about having problems with the disability resource center. Not getting their accommodation. But I found by interviewing these nine people, that wasn't the issue. It was actually the instructors. Like the one, the deaf participant, she really good things to share about the disability resource center. Like they really encouraged her, take advantage, learn about these accommodations because then you'll be able to share these with other people when you're an instructor. But they just really went above and beyond to encourage her.

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Like you know you're entitled to all this information that's being shared in these classes and we're happy it doesn't matter what things cost, we want you to get the information in these classes. And yes, saying, you know this will help you in your career because then you'll know about these services you can share them with your students. So that nobody had anything bad to say like, oh I didn't get the accommodations I requested. It was more with the instructors. Not being open to having some kind of accommodations or providing accommodations in their class. I mean that was kind of surprising. And then the last theme, everybody I talked with has kind of this extra skill set, things that maybe other instructors wouldn't share. Like the one participant, who he teaches classes in special ed and gifted ed, and he shares a lot about his own personal experience and makes sure even if the topic of the class. A lot of those teachers don't [inaudible] just with the high school teachers. I think a lot of the times unless their specifically wanting to be training for special education, I don't think they get a lot of that information.

So he liked to incorporate that into his classes. I guess I'd better stay on track. So these slides are kind of, I forgot I had this stuff on the slides. So we talked about identity stuff and the next slide is navigating systems and situations and I talked about some of the problems with the accommodations. Yes, people have a lot of support, if it was family or other faculty. And it was just interesting. You know every department seemed a little different. Some were very welcoming to students and really wanted to get them involved in research, and then other departments weren't like that. Okay, so then if you click one more, we're back to talking about some of the stuff the ethics. So these are things to ask at that graduate school level. Are their programs and classes and information accessible? Are students with disabilities encouraged to pursue graduate education? Are we educating other faculty about accessibility? And I guess it's just a simple as maybe here's what to expect if a captioner or an interpreter comes in. And you're obligated to do this, like it's the law that [inaudible] is supposed to be accommodated.

And then, yes, this next section I'm going to talk specifically about universal design techniques. So on the next slide it's just kind of a background. So universal design started out in architecture. So it was all about curb cut to making sure that doors weren't heavy to open. And it was kind of focused on physical space. So that kind of in academia or in school that they took that and then the concept of universal design and instruction emerged. So that was kind of applying those principles to the classroom environment and making sure that there's enough room to move around the classroom, that information is presented in different ways. And then it's cast.org that their focus is on universal design and learning.

And that has more to do with how we actually learn information. So, again on this next slide I've got a citation for Dr. Kerver [phonetic] actually on my committee, so she's a big advocate for social model of disability. So again universal design supports a social model, rather than emphasizing the individual student's responsibility, universal design will really like changing the environment.

And there have been some studies, Black, Weinberg, & Brodwin are at the UC [inaudible] LA and they've done a couple of studies on universal design surveying students and surveying faculty. So again, the environment, universal design architecture and instruction more to do with the environment and universal design learning has more to do with the learner. And some of the principles are equitability, accessibility [inaudible] and two of the views of that the next slide and there are jobs there the universal design instruction, everybody can navigate the classroom. Instructional materials are accessible to everybody. Pictures and graphs include text descriptions. I think it's important too, especially in stats classes like we use a lot of data analysis software and that's not always fully accessible. Some are more accessible than others. And then, as far as coding, there's ways to point and click and then there's also ways that you can code that same information when you're going to run an analysis. Okay, so this is the information that's on that cast.org website. And this has to do with universal design and learning principles. So as you can see, the concept is like different.

People tend to use different parts of their brain in learning. And some people more might be the strategic network in their learning. Some people might be more of like the affective network that might be a way that they learn better. So the whole concept is to present material in different ways so that no matter what somebody's learning style is, they can learn the information. So as far as the recognition network, with this it's important to present materials in different ways, like especially tactile work. And in terms of disability, because of some disabilities, people cannot see like that bell curve when it's up on a white board or on the PowerPoint. It's really important to present information in different ways. And now we can do some [inaudible] exercises.

And then the how of learning the strategic, so I think that's like the central cortex that makes sure that instructions should be mindful of just offering options for maybe assessing how somebody's learning something. Like not just [inaudible] or like handwritten tests but maybe offering people the opportunity to like stand up and do a presentation, rather than a test. And then you this was helpful to me, when the instructors included examples that were relevant to what I was studying. Because that's not happening in every rehab counseling degree program. Like a lot of times people have to, it's required that you take statistics and then they have to go over to some and take statistics and the other students are from a lot of different fields.

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Like they might from a total science field. And it's harder to understand the concepts if the questions and the examples and homework assignments aren't related to your field. So that's another thing. I felt really lucky because we had all my statistics classes and research classes were in the college of education, so it was all stuff that was pretty relatable. And then the affective network that's offering choices is really helpful. And maybe assigning students to a mentor. It makes me think of, it's really important to feel connected in the class. To feel connected to what you're learning and have that positive feeling like I'm excited about what I'm learning and connected to the material. If you don't have that it's really hard to stay engaged. So that's why CAST has this [inaudible] area. And if you go on that website, it's just tons of information and different techniques that you might think of incorporating in the classes. Okay, so then the third article, I've kind of talk about this quick because I want to do some hands on.

But in the article, I talked about the universal design concept and then I talked about things you can specifically integrate into like a statistics class. And the next slide I wanted to mention the inclusive language. It's [inaudible] to make sure even our language is inclusive. And I wanted to include this because I hadn't even thought about that, but yes, Dr. Krayer [phonetic] on my committee, she is always like just be really aware of your language. And I like this that somebody's recommending that rather than calling it like assisted technology, it's really educational technology. And you know lots of people can benefit from different kinds of technology.

[ Background conversation ]

So I've just got a couple exercises that are just some like tactile words to understand the concepts of [inaudible] deviations. So here's our pom-pom box and you need a hundred, you can pick what color you like. These are 65 each, but you need a hundred. It doesn't matter.

>> A hundred each, or total?

>> A hundred total. Do you want to do it together?

>> Okay.

>> So sorry for everybody that's online, but on my slides, I've got pretty good detail so hopefully you can kind of follow along. So this first exercise. Okay, so what we're going to do in this exercise is to understand like how many observations are in one standard deviation, within two standard deviations, within three standard deviations. And usually how they teach this in a statistics class is they have that bell curve up on the board and then there's the section curb with the mean, but this is just another way, it's a tactile way to understand those concepts. So in this exercise, so each of these pom-pom balls is like observation or one client or one score. So we've got 100 scores and this distribution is normally distributed. So we're thinning out. We have 100 observations. So, do you remember what percentage if it's normally distributed, what percentage is within one standard deviation? Do you remember?

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>> It's 67%

>> Very good, 68%. So how many observations would be?

>> 68

>> 68. So you can count them out.

>> Everyone listening, we're standard deviation each side of the mean.

>> Right.

>> Okay.

>> And do you remember how many out them, two standard deviations?

>> I kind of thought it was like 95%?

>> 95%. So then that's everything except for like five.

>> And they go on either side, don't they?

[ Laughter ]

Okay, we'll just put them all on one pile.

>> You know, that's a question about this exercise, like you don't have to make it look like the bell curve.

>> Everything but five.

>> Right, everything but five.

>> Okay. We've got five for me. Alright, this is for everybody else. Okay.

>> And then because we're going to do three standard deviations, it's going to be like 0.2%, so it will be just one tiny little fraction of one those, that would be outside of those three standard deviations. And so, this is just an example of something that I was looking for articles that had to do with what to do with transition age youth. What kinds of services help them get a job or whatever. I think that was basically it. And I wanted to make sure that the participants were a certain age range. But it didn't really give their age range, it just said what the average age was and then standard deviation. So let's say the article, I want to make sure the article that they were talking about participants that weren't any older than like 22 years old and none any younger than 16. So, let's say the article said the average of the participants is 18 and the standard deviation is 2 years.

>> So 18's the mean.

>> And the standard deviation is two.

>> Two years, so 18 and then go down to 16 here, and 20 here.

>> Exactly.

>> Just so you know this whole group is between 16 and 20.

>> 16 and 20. Very good. So that's like 86% of the participants. And then, so then what's the range of ages if we know that the standard deviation is two?

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>> Then they go down to, if it's two years, they go down to 14 and up to 22.

>> And that's 95% of the participants. And then even those participants must be.

>> 12 and 24, and then one's way out there.

>> So I guess there's only two that were. What did I say at the beginning?

>> Standard deviation was two years.

>> Yes, I was trying to find participants who were between 16 and 22. Yes, so problems would have been a condition of the article, help me out. Okay.

>> That's cool. That was fun.

>> Okay, so the next one, and this is the [inaudible] and we're sharing the PowerPoint with everybody, right?

>> Oh yes, I can get it. [inaudible]

>> Okay. So the next, and this is like a real life thing because I always had problems understanding ANOVA and degrees of freedom and how you equip that. Okay, so this is an exercise of the, you'll use some of them. Okay so these pipe cleaners are going to be the cells. Okay, so what you determine between [inaudible] the ANOVA. So students are normally found in three groups, and our students fit in a section of the text. So we have three groups, [inaudible], to represent each group.

>> Each group gets one?

>> Yes.

[ Background conversation ]

Yes, so each group has 12 students. Okay, so in our [inaudible] we know what kind study group they were in.

>> Okay.

>> So one group just studied a text by themselves, they didn't have much study group. So that's your control group. And on this group, they study in groups with two. And then this group they studied in groups of three. And then everybody has a test on one or two. So the hypothesis is that learning in groups of three will be more effective.

>> Okay.

>> So this is another, all we're doing in this exercise is figuring out how to report those degrees of freedom, how can you find out the F ratio. So, it's between subjects for both the three different conditions. And okay, how you report the degrees of freedom, is you have to figure out K and what's the number of conditions. Three conditions.

>> K = 3.

>> Yes. And then we know that little n, like the group of each of these, the little n is 12. And the big N is all the participants together.

>> 36

>> So that's 36. And when you report the degrees of freedom, it's k-1, n - k.

>> So k - 1 is 2.

>> Very good.

>> Then big N?

>> Big N - K.

>> 36 - 2, 34?

>> Well [inaudible]. N - K. 36 -

>> 33. Oh my god. I'll never remember that.

>> Well, I always have to look this up. What helps me is being able to see or feel like learning the color rather than just having it up on the board, you know what I mean? Because there's different kinds of ANOVAs and it is different if you have the same participants and you're testing them again. Like in these they're all different. So anyway that's just another exercise. Okay, so then another thing I'd like to demonstrate - maybe you can help me with this - because it's how to add up text for an image. So one thing that's really frustrating for anybody that uses a screen, screen reader software if somebody hasn't put in text for the image, it's just those image. And then somebody has no idea what it says. But it's really easy to put some description in an image. So if you maybe just click that sign that says it has an image. I think pretty much for all the images, especially the green ones, they put a lot of information on. So you can, on these images, I guess this is a Mac, how do you like right click? Yes, so I won't be able to demonstrate that. Okay. But I did include some instructions on [inaudible] and it's really easy to do alt text. You just right click on the image and I use a PC, then I right click then I can go down and it says alt text and then a box pops up. Yes, it's really easy.

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>> You just find the image and you right click on it and it allows you to format the picture?

>> [inaudible] in the PowerPoint that's all I had to do. Just right click and then it would say, I think I double-clicked right click. And then it would pop up and I could just put in the alt text. But you usually can do this in PowerPoint. That's the way I had been doing it. You right click on the image, you choose some picture and then you find the properties icon. I recently did upgrades whatever - maybe they made it even easier. But this is a really easy thing to do and it's so helpful to anybody that uses screen reader. Because otherwise all that stuff is just not accessible at all. Graphs, you can do it for tables and what I did in PowerPoint, because I remember that [inaudible] and I was having problems with formatting so I cut and pasted and it's a picture. Not alt text, if you want a word document of the information, here's my email and I'll send you a word doc. Okay, the last thing I want to talk about, and these are some other resources that you can just click on and take a look at the videos, there's this other concept now where they call it a flipped class. What that means is the lecture is led by video and the students are looking at all that material outside of class. And then in class, instead of having a lecture you have the homework and the exercises in the class and everybody's doing the exercises together. So that's the concept flipped class. So there's a couple of links to different sites where they have videos of all sorts of different statistical concepts. And I think that's all the information I have. Has anyone been texting in any questions?

>> First of all, interesting, really interesting I think especially the last two studies were interesting to me. I like the idea of universal design and ways to make [inaudible] more accessible. I think that's great information. I was really interested in this whole idea. One of the things that I've played around with in my own research is this notion that disability isn't necessarily this overwhelmingly negative experience that you get a lot from it. I remember being involved in one of the [inaudible] like that people have lived experiences that they could bring into their teaching and make a big difference. I liked it and I want to tell people to [inaudible]. The concept of people with differing research. People having their rich lived experience with disability that they were then able to bring into the context of their jobs [inaudible].

>> Yes, I found that a lot. One person has been teaching, like teacher education for, I think, about 20 years. And he'll do like talks on world AIDS day he'll do talks on the university about AIDS because he's been living with that. And a lot of his work, he's Mexican, so he did a lot of work in schools that were in like poorer districts in LA and San Francisco. He's like really active in Alcoholics Anonymous, and I think because of that he's really mindful like if his students are struggling with something, you know? I think that the lived experience having a disability, you learn a level way to navigate through life and it's not. And the thing that makes it negative is the environment. And when you like run into an instructor like, no, I'm not going to, I don't think you should keep this information all to myself. I don't want to make the effort to try and explain it in a different way or put it in a different format.

There's stuff out there, I wish I could remember this guy's name, but he's an engineer and he's blind. And yes, blind people are very creative because he says, you know, we have to work to figure out all these different ways to navigate through life. He feels that that gives him a lot richer experience and way more useful experience to use as an engineer. Personally I think it's all my perspective is it is all the environment. The environment needs to be more accessible. And because it's not, it's like you're kind of forced to learn different techniques. You're [inaudible] increases because you have that much more awareness.

>> It's probably true of all those intersectionalities, that every time life throws you something that could possibly be seen as a disadvantage it's also an advantage.

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>> Right. The one guy that's in like business management, he should he wouldn't have had to do this, but he helped, does stuff with the military, like overseas. And some of the workers [inaudible] every year and that was really a hassle and for them to be working with the military overseas. So helped that process so they didn't have to go through this whole like recertification thing. Like not everybody in management does that, but he could see that we're going to lose people and this was the extra help, why can't we make it streamlined like we do for this group? So, I do think that people get more perspective. Is there another questions?

>> I have a question. You mentioned when you were talking about, I believe the first article about [inaudible] and about how we're telling them that they need to do these things and they need to go there, right? [inaudible] I guess, if we're the ones that are doing these things, is that kind of like paternalism, are we putting a lot of [inaudible] success later, or are we not their responsibility to do that?

>> So the question, I should probably give you guys a microphone. So the question is about transition age youth and kind of are we doing them a disservice if we do too much advocacy for them? Is that kind of the questions?

>> Yes, I mean, you mentioned that it's our responsibility to make sure that they're successful and they're learning, but like when they get to college, everything is on them, I guess I'm just saying how much of that should be on their own?

>> Well, it's a process, I mean, I think sometimes we think that because somebody has a disability that they like automatically have all this information or like the family does. Like what their rights are, you know? What kinds of services somebody should be under an IEP and a lot of times that's not the situation. Like everybody learning. So again I think if you can kind of think in terms of the environment and making sure that everybody has the information. Like not only the student but the parent and whoever is in that student's life, teachers, maybe teachers aren't sure what department they may have involvement in or what's going to be expected or what's going to be available at this school, when they get to college. So everything's case by case, you know. We need to educate people so that they can advocate for themselves but at the same time like we need to be outside trying to correct things in the environment or working with other systems. Especially the transition aged youth, that could be part of transition is kind of navigating, how much am I going to navigate and kind of do things that I know are going to help and then how much do I back off and let that student find their own way. And there's no one simple answer, but we have to be mindful of that whole process.

[ Inaudible ]

Well I think that's our time.

>> It is. That's great.

>> Thank you. Thanks

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